In pelvic ultrasonography, high frequency sound waves are reflected to a transducer to provide images of the interior pelvic area on a monitor. Techniques of sound imaging include A-mode (amplitude modulation, recorded as spikes), B-mode (brightness modulation), gray scale (a representation of organ texture in shades of gray), and real-time imaging (instantaneous images of the tissues in motion, similar to fluoroscopic examination). Selected views may be photographed for later examination and a permanent record of the test.
Procedure and posttest care
The uterus is normal in size and shape. The ovaries' size, shape, and sonographic density are normal. No other masses are visible. If the patient is pregnant, the gestational sac and fetus are of normal size in relation to gestational age.
Both cystic and solid masses have homogeneous densities, but solid masses (such as fibroids) appear more dense. Inappropriate fetal size may indicate miscalculated conception or delivery date, fetal anomalies, or a dead fetus. Abnormal echo patterns may indicate foreign bodies (such as an intrauterine device), multiple pregnancy, maternal abnormalities (such as placenta previa or abruptio placentae), fetal abnormalities (such as molar pregnancy or abnormalities of the arms and legs, spine, heart, head, kidneys, and abdomen), fetal malpresentation (such as breech or shoulder presentation), and cephalopelvic disproportion.
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