Testing of Sugar
Various Diabetes detection and education programmes have changed the thinking of general population. Now they believe that early diagnosis of Diabetes and its control can make their life comfortable, free from the complications of Diabetes. There are various methods to diagnose Diabetes. These are:
Urine can be tested for glucose at home or in laboratory by stick method or by Benedicts test.
Test by Glucostrips
This is simple procedure, various companies make strips. There is a chemical at the end of strip which when comes in contact with urine sugar/glucose changes its colour. One can read and compare the colours with the colours displayed at strip bottle.
How to do it
From the strip it will become clear whether one is having sugar or not. +, ++, ++++ of sugar or 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% or 2%.
Depending upon the colour of strip from
It is not essential that all Diabetic patients will pass sugar in urine. If Blood Sugar is not more than 180 mg, 100 ml of Blood Sugar will not appear in urine.
Excessive intake of Vita-C/Asprin or Aldomet tablets can give false results, i.e. if person is taking the above medicines his urine may not reveal correct picture.
With Benedict Test
Urine is heated with Benedict solution and change in colour is observed. Depending upon the colour of mixture - If it is Blue, Dark Green, Yellow Green, Orange. Strips for ketone are also available, IDDM patients urine should be tested for Ketones in urine.
Urine testing for sugar can be done 3-4 times a day in a patient who is using insulin to monitor the dose of Insulin.
Blood Sugar Estimation
For Blood Sugar estimation now-a-days there are computerised equipment available which can give the results within few minutes.
Blood Sugar estimation can be done
A. Fasting Blood Sugar
Fasting Blood Sugar is usually between
Random Blood Sugar means levels at any time of the day which should be below 160mg% in normal person.
Blood Sugar can be done by Gluconometer. It is an easy process require only drop of blood and results are know at the same time.
Blood Sugar (Self Analysis How Much Under Control)
There are many types of Gluconometer available in the market at present and are easy to use.
We need strips which have pad at one end which reacts with blood and changes its colour which can be read by naked eye or by feeding strip into the Gluconometer which reveals Blood Sugar level.
Blood Sugar Estimation from Laboratory
By giving blood in laboratory you can be the report. Regular Blood Sugar testing is essential to know the result of treatment and one can adjust the does.
Blood Sugar test should be done twice, i.e. in fasting stage and 2 hours after food.
There is doubt in the mind of all diabetics that the blood sugar estimation by gluconometer is not reliable. It is not true, throughout the world these gluconometers are used. Usually there is difference of 10 to 15 mg in the reading of the gluconometer and the readings from outside, i.e. laboratory.
If there is doubt then one can undergo Glucose Tolerance Test.
Glucose Tolerance Test (G.T.T.)
In this test the person is given 75gm of glucose on the day oftest and Blood samples are collected every 30 minutes of 2 hourly and then hourly. Now-a-days many labs don't insist upon taking many samples of blood. Blood glucose more than 2OOmg% one to two hour after glucose ingestion are diagnostic of Diabetes.
The person who is undergoing G.T.T., should eat large amount of carbohydrate and should exercise regularly and should not be suffering from any serious disease.
People who should undergo this test
Blood test which indicates Blood Sugar levels in a Diabetic patients over a period of last 2-3 months. Specially useful in Diabetes with pregnancy and it helps to give an idea about the efficacy of treatment. If one can afford one should undergo this test atleast once or twice in a year.
Normal levels are expressed in %. Normal levels are less than 6.4%. If it is persistently above 9% it indicates abnormally high Blood Sugar and need proper control.
HbA,c - Normal valure 5.2% - 6.4%
Reduction of HbA,c below 7% reduces incidence of complication. If the HbAIC levels are kept below or around 6.5% there are less chances of complications.
Summary About Tests for Diabetes
All Diabetics should learn to monitor their diabetes themselves by doing urine test and Blood glucose estimation. This is called as Home Blood Glucose Monitoring (HBGM). You can make diary and can write about Blood Sugar Levels which will indicate that your Diabetes is under control or not. RB.G.M. is useful in following situations:
What is Meant by Good Control
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